Friday, September 6, 2013

Gender Bias in Science, Part I: Lise Meitner

Marie Curie (1903)
Some people would like to believe that, in the "enlightened" 21st century that we live in, sexism is all but a thing of the past. Sadly, while things have improved greatly over the years in many countries around the world, sexism and gender bias are still major problems in our society.  You don't have to look very far to see that.

Science and medicine are both fields that have a long history of sexism and gender bias.  Some of the most important scientific discoveries were made by women who fought hard to gain a place in male-dominated fields, only to later see the credit for these discoveries go largely to their male collegues or supervisors. 

Sure, there were certainly many important women scientists who were well-recognized for their accomplishments, including the great Marie Curie, who won two Nobel Prizes (one in physics and one chemistry, the only person to win in two different categories) for her discovery of radium and studies on radioactivity, and Barbara McClintock, who won a 1983 Nobel Prize for her work on genetic inheritance.  Unfortunately, though, there were many brilliant women scientists who were overlooked, ignored, or otherwise taken advantage of.  

Let's disuss a little bit about gender bias in science and few of the women pioneers who helped to change the way we look at the world but who ended up getting far less credit and fame than their really deserved.

Barbara McClintock (1947)
Examples of Gender Bias in Science Today

While open cases of discrimination in science are far more rare today than they were 50 or 100 years ago, women are still under-represented in higher-level positions of academic science, a situation which can lead to significant gender bias.  We need to quickly review how academic positions and promotions usually work in order to understand the statistics below we'll mention below.  We'll focus on what are called "tenure track" positions, which are usually considered the "highest" levels in academia.

Once someone receives a PhD in science or engineering, they often (depending on the field) work for anywhere from a 1-5 (or more) years as a "postdoc" (postdoctoral researcher or postdoctoral fellow) in someone else's lab until they can publish enough papers and/or get enough grant money to be competitive for a "real" job on the track to the academic goal of tenure.  Many alternatives to this exist, including industry jobs, consulting, teaching, etc., but we are going to focus in this post mainly on academic research.  In academia, tenure basically came about as a way to ensure that university professors could "speak their mind" and not be influenced by politics or other influences that prevented them from teaching or researching "the truth."  Some would argue that it is now an antiquated concept that should be done away with, but that's not a topic for this post.      

The first "tenure track" job that a postdoc or PhD student will get is assistant professor. Assistant professors do not have tenure, but rather they work in this position for anywhere from 5-10 years (depending on their institution) until they "come up" for tenure.  A committee meets to decide if they have met the requirements (publications, research grants, teaching contributions, etc.), and if so, they are "promoted" to associate professor with tenure, which basically means that they can't be fired as long as they meet certain basic requirements.   It very much depends on the rules of the individual institution, and tenure isn't a total free pass at employment for life, but it is far more of a guarantee of employment than exists in almost any other field.  An associate professor can then eventually be promoted to full professor (usually just professor) depending on his or her accomplishments.

What is interesting about the gender distribution in science is that the percentage of women drops off significantly as you go higher up these ranks of academia.  The US National Science Foundation reports that approximately half of the PhDs given out each year in science and engineering are earned by women, yet women make up only 21% of full science professors and 5% of full engineering professors.  Those women that have made it to the full professor level earn, on average, about 82% of what their male peers do.  A 2010 study by the US National Research Council likewise showed that only 36% of assistant professors and only 27% of tenure candidates were women.  This phenomenon is not restricted to the US.  A 2008 editorial in Current Biology noted that in Germany, only about 11% of full professors were women, while at the most prestigious German research institution, The Max-Planck Society, only about 7% of the institute directors were women.

There is a tremendous drop off from about 50% women at academia's lower levels (PhD students to postdocs) to 20-30% women or even less at higher levels.  This is also reflected in the amount of funding given to men and women scientists.   In 2002, approximately 24% of US National Institutes of Health (NIH) research grants went to women, while ten years later the number was still only around 30%.  What is even more interesting and shocking, though, is that the average size of these research grants given to women are much smaller than the same grants given to men.  Grants given to women were funded at a approximately 20% lower level in 2002 ($330,169 vs $403,047) and approximately 17% lower level in 2012 ($421,385 vs $507,279).  As you can see in the dollar figures, that's a large monetary difference, enough to significantly impact the success or failure of a research project.   

Some of these gender inequalities also cross over into the biotech industry.  For example, in 1981-1995, less than 10% of the scientists on biotech scientific advisory boards were women, while in a "matched sample" of prominent scientists from the same fields, about 30% were women.  It appears that women are asked less frequently to be on the scientific advisory boards of biotech companies.

This lack of "retention" of women in science has been suggested to be due partly to the lack of female role models in higher-level positions, a lack of a "family-friendly" environment in academic research, where one is often expected to work long hours.  Some of this may indeed be true. Due to the nature of biology, women who want to have a family have to be the ones to have babies, and taking time off to have a child can negatively impact any career.  But, while things seem to be getting better slowly, no one can argue with the fact that real gender bias still exists in science just like it does in all fields. Scientists are human, after all, and subject to the same human flaws, imperfections, mistakes, and errors as everyone else.

In order to understand a problem, you need to examine its roots, so I thought I would create a series of posts about historical women who played pivotal roles in science and worked tirelessly to do so, only to find later on that their work led to directly to their male colleagues being given science's highest honor, the Nobel Prize.   This series will not be an exhaustive list of important female scientists, but rather a series of examples of great women scientists who were wronged.  I hope it encourages a few readers to follow some of the links below to get more information on great women  in science history as well as better understand current issues concerning women and gender bias in science.
 
The Historical Case of Lise Meitner (1878-1968)
Lise Meitner (1906)

The science historian Margaret W. Rossiter described a phenomenon she termed the Matilda Effect, which is the repression and denial of the contribution of women scientists and the deflection of the credit for their discoveries onto their male colleagues.  This is adapted from a phenomenon called the Matthew Effect, described by Robert K. Merton in 1968, which describes how credit for discoveries is often deflected from less famous or unknown scientists to more famous scientists, often described by the simple terms of the "rich getting richer" and the "poor getting poorer."  The name of the Matthew Effect comes from a line in the Gospel of Matthew in the Christian New Testament (chapter 25, verse 29), which states, For whoever has will be given more, and they will have an abundance. Whoever does not have, even what they have will be taken from them.  

The idea of the Matilda Effect is that, in group of researchers, the male scientists are automatically assumed by the scientific establishment to be the "brains" behind the discovery, and are thus attributed credit.  The first woman scientist we will discuss here, Lise Meitner, is often held up as an example of the Matilda Effect.

Though Meitner was born into a small Jewish family from Austria, her work in Berlin eventually earned her the nickname "The German Madame Curie" from Albert Einstein.  Her research helped to discover the phenomenon of nuclear fission, or the process of splitting atoms, which releases large amounts of energy.  The discovery of fission made both atomic power and the atomic bomb possible.

In 1905, Meitner became only the second woman in Vienna to obtain a PhD in physics in 1905. After her PhD, she traveled to Berlin and worked with the chemist Otto Hahn, but Hahn was working in Emil Fischer's laboratory (we mentioned Emil Fischer in the post on sugar alcohols), where women were forbidden.  They had to put Meitner in an old carpenter's workshop that they outfitted for her research, as German scientists of the time like Fischer did not approve of women in academia.  Two years later, however, partly because of Meitner's sucess, Emil Fischer dropped his ban on women scientists in the lab and actually became quite a supportive mentor to Meitner.

Meitner and Hahn (1913)
Meitner briefly took a hiatus as an x-ray nurse during World War I, but afterward she worked at the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut, one of Germany's most prestigious research institutions, later renamed the Max-Planck Institute after World War II.   Meitner eventually became the head of a physics department there.  In 1926, she was the first woman in Germany to become a full professor of physics at the University of Berlin.  There she began to compete with other scientific greats like Ernest Rutherford and Enrico Fermi in a race to discover nuclear fission, a race that she won in 1939. At the time, these scientists hadn't yet linked the idea of fission to energy release and atomic weapons.  They were instead working on the more theoretical aspects of creating elements heavier than uranium in the lab as a potential Nobel Prize-winning feat.

The rise of Hitler to power in 1933 forced many of Meitner's colleagues to resign from their posts and flee Germany.  Being of Jewish descent but with Austrian citizenship, she managed to keep her job initially but did end up fleeing Germany in 1938 for the Netherlands with the help of Dutch physicist colleagues. She escaped with nothing more than the clothes on her back, 10 marks in her purse, and a diamond ring, given to her by Otto Hahn in case she had to bribe a border guard to get through.  Meitner started working in Stockholm and continued her research, and she became a friend and colleague of the great Danish physicist Niels Bohr.  She managed to covertly meet several times with Otto Hahn in Copenhagen to discuss experiments for Hahn and his colleague, Fritz Strassmann, to perform in their lab in Berlin to continue their work on fission.

This work led to Hahn and Strassman publishing a scientific paper in 1938, demonstrating that they had detected the element barium after they bombarded uranium with neutrons.  Unfortunately, Hahn and Strassman were still in Germany.  It was thus impossible for them to include the exiled Meitner on this paper, lest they incur the wrath of the Nazi regime.  However, Meitner and her nephew, Otto Frisch, published a follow-up paper in 1939 in the journal Nature, where they correctly interpreted the results of Hahn and Strassman's study as the evidence of nuclear fission.

When atoms of the uranium isotope U-235 are bombarded with neutrons (uncharged subatomic particles; abreviated "N" below), the uranium nucleus can absorb the neutron and transform the uranium atom into the U-236 isotope.  U-236 is an "excited state" that is short-lived and quickly spits, releasing two lighter compounds (krypton; Kr) and barium (Ba) as well as a large amount of energy, gamma rays, and 3 free neutrons that fly off at high speed.    

A single nuclear fission reaction

Meitner became the first to realize that Einstein's equation for mass-energy equivalence, E = mc2, is the reason for the large amounts of energy released during nuclear fission.  She also recognized that fission could be used to create a chain reaction and release enormous amounts of energy, potentially with explosive applications.  The neutrons released from one U-235 fission reaction can go on to start other fission reaction, which themselves release more high-speed neutrons.  

The start of a nuclear fission chain reaction

The atomic mushroom cloud over Nagasaki (1945)

This discovery was part of the catalyst for Albert Einstein's letter to Franklin Roosevelt, in which he explained the potentially catastrophic implications of Germany developing an atomic weapon before the Allied forces, resulting in Roosevelt's creation of the Manhattan Project, a massive top-secret project that included many of the world's best scientists and engineers.  The goal of the Manhattan project was simple: develop an atomic weapon before Germany.  When Meitner was offered a place to work on the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory, she adamantly refused, saying that she would "have nothing to do with a bomb."  In the end, though, Germany could not produce a fission bomb before they were defeated by the Allies, but the Allies did develop two atomic weapons in 1945.  These use of these two atomic bombs was a key component in forcing Japan to surrender.   


R1, Sweden's first nuclear reactor
After the war, Meitner worked on research related to the peaceful use of nuclear fission, including the development Sweden's first nuclear reactor, a research reactor known as R1.  During this time, Meitner also became extremely vocal with her criticisms of Hahn and other German scientists who had collaborated with the Nazis and made little attempts to protest Hitler and his policies.  Meitner wrote that they betrayed their friends, their children, and Germany itself.   Despite this and events that would follow, she still remained friends with Otto Hahn for the rest of their lives.  However, Meitner never moved back to Germany, but rather carried on with her life and research in Stockholm.    

Meitner at a lecture (1946)
In November of 1945, only Otto Hahn was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the development of nuclear fissionMeitner's crucial role in the discovery was omitted.  The Nobel Prize committee gave Hahn sole credit.  Despite many other honors that were awarded to Meitner over the ensuing years, many historians consider the Nobel snub to be an epic omission to her great legacy as a scientist.  Historians have since found many letters between Hahn and Meitner from the years leading up to 1939 that clearly show how she guided Hahn through many of his experiments.  At the time, though, Hahn helped to rationalize Meitner's exclusion by attributing a supporting role to her, and he appeared to happily accept sole credit for the discovery.  Unfortunately, the Nobel committee failed to either recognize, understand, or admit Meitner's contributions, and most physicists and historians agree that Meitner was grossly wronged.

Meitner retired in 1960 and moved to Britain to live with relatives, though she continued to give lectures and write.  She died in 1968, when she was 89 years old.  Her tombstone epitaph was written by her nephew, Otto Frisch, who helped her with her work on fission while exiled from Germany.  It reads,

Lise Meitner 
1878-1968
A physicist 
who never lost
her humanity 

We will never really know exactly what role her gender played in the decision to omit her from the Nobel Prize, but perhaps it played into the idea that her work simply supported Hahn's, an example of the Matilda Effect in action.  We don't know for sure, but we'll see in the future posts that the theme of a deserving women being denied Nobel recognition is a relatively common in history, regardless of the cause-and-effect relationship.
 
Text © 2013 TheMadScienceBlog.  Images are public domain.    


Sources and Further Reading
  • Encyclopedia Britanica Blog. "10 Women Scientists Who Should Be Famous (Or More Famous)." 10 March 2011. Available here.
  • O.R. Frisch. "Lise Meitner. 1879-1968." Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 1970. 16:405-420.
  • J.J. Lee. "6 Women Scientists Who Were Snubbed Due to Sexism." National Geographic. 19 May 2013. Available here.
  • A. McCook. "Barred from the Boardroom." Nature. 2013. 495:25-27.
  • B. Muhlenbruch. "Only Wholesale Reform Will Bring Equality." Nature. 2013. 495:40-42.
  • C. Nusslein-Volhard. "Women in Science--Passion and Prejudice." Current Biology. 2008. 18:R185-R187. Available here.
  • National Research Council, et al. Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty. 2010. National Academies Press. Free to read online. Available here.
  • A.M. Petersen, W.-S. Jung, J.-S. Yang, H.E. Stanley. "Quantitative and Empirical Evidence of the Matthew Effect in a Study of Career Longevity." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA. 2010. 108:18-23. Available here.
  • S. Ravindran. "Barbara McClintock and the Discovery of Jumping Genes." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA. 2012. 109: 20198-20199. Available here. [Link opens a PDF]
  • M.W. Rossiter. "The Matthew Matilda Effect in Science." Social Studies of Science. 1993. 23:325-341.
  • San Diego Supercomputer Center. "Women in Science. A Selection of 16 Significant Contributors." Available here.
  • H. Shen. "Mind the Gender Gap." Nature. 2013. 495:22-24. [Includes a lot of statistics about Women vs Men in Academia used for the intro to this post.]
  • E. Westly. "No Nobel for You: Top 10 Nobel Snubs." Scientific American. 6 Oct. 2008. Available here.
  • S. Zielinski. "10 Historic Female Scientists You Should Know." Smithsonian Magazine. 20 September 2011. Available here.

26 comments:

  1. Thank you for writing this.every point you make is identical to my lifetime observations. I would like to add that some men, for example Alan Turing, who unlike Meitner was the subject of a movie, experienced betrayal and unconscionable assukt on his personhood. While for her the vulnerability imposed by motherhood during a time with fewer childcare options, likely made having a love life outside of her love of physics, unviable, for Turing, it was forcibly destroyed. He was a contemporary, and also European, so similarly abusive laws and social conventions limited his options for living a happy life. Today, I believe humor and other forms of entertainment take the place of law and convention to limit the happiness of women and some men. This permeates university, home and work environments and results in sine of the same limitations on rewards for hard labor.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I want use this opportunity to tell the world what has really happened to me for past few months, I have been married for two years without a child i was so worried, I have visited several hospitals and I was told i can't not conceive because i was having fibroid, I have been treated and even undergoes cloistral operation but still couldn't conceive until One day i came across Lillian Testimony on a guest book she was sharing the same problem exactly what is happening to me how Dr,,Miracle has cure his Fibroid, immediately i contacted him and told him about my Problem and he gave me hope that i should not be worried at all that he has cure more people already having same problem and said he can cure me under 8 weeks i was amaze. I Believe in him because he was the only hope and i followed him up he prepared me some herbs and send it to me in my state. I started using the herbs with his prescriptions, as i was taking the herbs i started noticing some changes in my body, to cut everything short i missed my period and today i have a child baby girl, My husband is so much happy and my mum too God. Thank you Dr,,Miracle I can't just keep this to my self i decided to share and post it here on-line for everyone to see that the work Of God In My Life True His Son Dr,,Miracle God Bless Doctor And More Grace To His Work, Email Him (miraclespellhome@yahoo.com) Call Or Whatsapp Him +2348071398555 ,,

      Delete
    2. Its a miracle that I am alive today. I encounter HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS (HSV1/2) for good four (4) years, six (6) months and twelve (12) day with my calculations, before I meet the great Dr. Sambo. I am DEBORAH BALOGH from Fresno California, united state of America and I was affected with herpes virus. Herpes is a viral infection cause by the Herpes simplex virus, marked by painful, watery blister in the skin or mucous membrane or on the genitals. This was what I suffered for good four years. I have visited CVS Pharmacy in Fresno for treatment but no improvement. I meet Dr. Sambo online while I was searching for herpes cure I read a testimony about his work. I give a try that now becomes a testimony in my life. I contacted Dr. Sambo via his E-mail divinespellhome@gmail.com and he did not responds to me in time and I went back to the same testimony for his mobile number and I called him immediately +2348145810121 and he respond to my call. He welcome me as a daughter and I explain my four years situation to him and he said is done just as I have contacted him and I believed in him. Dr. Sambo sends me some herbal medication for herpes cure and he gave me instruction on what to do and I obeyed his instruction. Changes started after three days of applying the herbal medication. I went to the same CVS Pharmacy in Fresno for test and i was herpes negative. I do not know how to thanks Dr. Sambo for saving my life. To God be the Glory, I am living healthy with my family today.

      Indeed, Dr. Sambo is a great man

      and the only thing he requested from me is to share my Testimony for the world to see for a safe living from herpes viral disease and just as I did.

      E-mail divinespellhome@yahoo.com

      God bless Dr. Sambo for his good work...

      Delete
    3. Am here to testify of the miraculous work of a great traditional doctor called DR.ZUKU ..I have been suffering from Herpes since last 2 years with my Husband but today I am happy that am cure from it with the herbal medicine made by Dr.ZUKU the great healer, I was browsing the internet searching for help when I came across a testimony shared by someone on how Dr.ZUKU cure her from Herpes Disease. I quickly contacted him to get the cure and today i am now free from the Virus, I am so much happy today that we have someone like this great healer out there, so' people out there kindly contact this great doctor on his email address please sir keep your good work cause there are people out there who is in need of your healing medicine .once more contact him now drzukuspelltemple@gmail.com or contact Dr Zuku Blogs https://drzukuspelltemple.blogspot.co.ke/ call or text +16177296273 Dr.Zuku can prepare Herbal medicine for all kind of disease. HIV. CANCER. HEPATITIS B.DIABETES.COLD SORES. Syphilis. HBV, HPV, STD's And many more.contact Dr.Zuku to get your healing.True Website https://drzukuspelltemplewhereallkindsofproblemisbesolve.wordpress.com/contact/

      Delete
    4. I'm here to share to the worldwide that Dr.Zuku is a Powerful Herbal Medicine man. that can cure your disease if you can only contact him and let him help you. I was cured from my Herpes Disease. after suffering since 9years ago. but when i contact him on the internet. he gave me a Natural cure that ended my suffering after using it for two weeks. i went to check myself on the hospital and i was tested negative. I can't more happier but to say thank you sir and i use this medium to say to everyone don't waste any time to contact this powerful herbal Dr,Zuku On any Kind of Disease he is Ready to help you. You can reach him through

      Email:drzukuspelltemple@gmail.com

      Dr.Zuku Cell Number:+16177296273

      contact Dr Zuku Blogs: https://drzukuspelltemple.blogspot.co.ke/

      Dr.Zuku Website: https://drzukuspelltemplewhereallkindsofproblemisbesolve.wordpress.com/contact/

      Delete
    5. HOW I GOT CURED OF HESPES DISEASE
      I'm here to testify about what DR. OSO did for me. I have been suffering from (HERPES) disease for the past 5 years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year,I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came across a testimony of one lady on the internet testifying about a Man called DR. OSO on how he cured her from herpes disease. And she also gave the email address of this man and advise anybody to contact him for help for any kind of sickness that he would be of help, so I emailed him telling him about my (HERPES) he told me not to worry that i was going to be cured!! Well i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me as DR. OSO assured me that i will be cured,after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if i have be finally healed behold it was TRUE, the test came out negative. So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can contact DR. OSO for help via email} drosohaberhome@gmail.com/ dr.osoherberhome1@outlook.com Or CALL/WHATAPPS him through his mobile} +2348162084839..

      Delete
    6. My Name is Linda Mark from USA/TEXAS Dr.SUKU Herbal Medicine is a good remedy for Herpes Virus , I was a carrier of Herpes and I saw a testimony on how Dr.SUKU cure Herpes Virus, I decided to contact him, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for my health. After he finish he sent me the herbs which i took for 2 week before going for a check up and getting there i could not believe that i was confirm Herpes Negative after the test,Today i am so happy because i'm free from herpes disease with the help of Dr.SUKU Thank God now everything is fine, I'm cured by Dr.SUKU herbal medicine, I'm very thankful to God for making it possible you can reach him on his email i strongly recommend him to any one out here looking for a cure drsukuherbalhome@gmail.com or Text/Call cell number +1(325) 701-3934 Dr.Suku Web /Site http://DrSUKU.website2.me

      Delete
  2. PENIS ENLARGEMENT, WEAK ERECTION FEEL LIKE A KING IN BED POWERFUL LOVER MAKER WITH COMPLETE CONTROL IN BED YOU CAN FUCK ANY WOMAN TO ORGASM AND IT,S EASY CONTACT OGUDUSPELLTEMPLE@YAHOO.COM.. WHATSAPP NUMBER +2348106058254

    My name is DAVID MOORE from NORWAY am here today to testify about my true life story many men all over the world today are suffering of small joystick (PENIS) and weak erection of the penis. I am 40 and have lived a very lonely life because of it. I can,t even look at women in the eye because of it. It has caused me great torment through-out my life. I had sex with a lot of girls but also had a lot of rejections and a lot of girls mock on my size. For me the thoughest part is not that girls mock on my size but when my wife packed out of the house and started seeing another man. Let’s me say that 75% of men & youth all over the world are really suffering of small joystick (PENIS) and weak erection of the penis. Some men today no longer enjoying their spouse any more, due to the size and weak erection of the penis, because of this act their ladies went out to have sex with those men that their penis is bigger still strong and stand erect. This act broke marriages or relationship. My condition have changed today after contacting DR.OGUDU the great herbalist, If you,re in the same condition please contact him via his email [OGUDUSPELLTEMPLE@YAHOO.COM] OR WHATSAPP +2348106058254 WEBSITE--------http://oguduspelltemple.wixsite.com/drogudu

    ReplyDelete
  3. I THOUGHT THE PHYSICIANS SAY NO CURE FOR HIV/AIDS?, I AM TELLING YOU TODAY THAT DR. MOLOWA, CURED MY HIV/AIDS WITH HIS HERBAL MEDICINE AND ONCE YOU GET CURED YOU ARE CURED FOREVER, IT IS NEVER REVERSABLE.
    MY NAME IS ANSLEY GEORGE KATE: FROM THE UNITED STATE OF AMERICA,AM USING THIS GREAT OPPORTUNITY TO SAVE LIFE BY SHARING MY TESTIMONY THAT THERE IS A CURE FOR HIV/AIDS BECAUSE I AM A LIVING TESTIMONY,I SUFFERED FOR HIV/AIDS FOR GOOD ONE YEAR AND TWO MONTHS AFTER LOOSING HOPE THAT I CAN NEVER GET THE CURE BEACAUSE THE DOCTORS SAID THERE IS NO CURE FOR IT,BUT THANKS BEEN TO THIS GREAT MAN CALLED DR. MOLOWA WHOM I READ A TESTIMONY ABOUT ON HOW HE CURED HIV/AIDS WITH HIS HERBAL MEDICINE,I NEVER BELIEVE THIS BUT I DECIDED TO CONTACT HIM THROUGH THE STATED EMAIL, (dr.molowa@gmail.com) and he send to me a herbal medicine and ask me to drink and bath with the herbal medicine for one 3 weeks but to my greatest surprises, i went for a medical test after two weeks and my status was negetive till today i cant keep sharing this testimony please brothers and sisters there is a cure to hiv/aids, contact this man for what ever you are going through, what ever sickness you are suffering from, like
    (1) CANCER,
    (2) DIABETES,
    (3) HIV&AIDS,
    (4) URINARY TRACT INFECTION,
    (5) CANCER,
    (6) IMPOTENCE,
    (7) BARENESS/INFERTILITY
    (8) DIARRHEA
    (9) ASTHMA
    (10)SIMPLEX HERPES AND GENITAL HERPES
    11) HE ALSO HAVE SPELL TO BRING BACK YOUR EX
    hiv/aids,perkinsons disease, ALS,CANCERS,HERPES. contact him with his email via (dr.molowa@gmail.com) or call him through the following contact on +2349035740352

    ReplyDelete
  4. I THOUGHT THE PHYSICIANS SAY NO CURE FOR HIV/AIDS?, I AM TELLING YOU TODAY THAT DR. MOLOWA, CURED MY HIV/AIDS WITH HIS HERBAL MEDICINE AND ONCE YOU GET CURED YOU ARE CURED FOREVER, IT IS NEVER REVERSABLE.
    MY NAME IS ANSLEY GEORGE KATE: FROM THE UNITED STATE OF AMERICA,AM USING THIS GREAT OPPORTUNITY TO SAVE LIFE BY SHARING MY TESTIMONY THAT THERE IS A CURE FOR HIV/AIDS BECAUSE I AM A LIVING TESTIMONY,I SUFFERED FOR HIV/AIDS FOR GOOD ONE YEAR AND TWO MONTHS AFTER LOOSING HOPE THAT I CAN NEVER GET THE CURE BEACAUSE THE DOCTORS SAID THERE IS NO CURE FOR IT,BUT THANKS BEEN TO THIS GREAT MAN CALLED DR. MOLOWA WHOM I READ A TESTIMONY ABOUT ON HOW HE CURED HIV/AIDS WITH HIS HERBAL MEDICINE,I NEVER BELIEVE THIS BUT I DECIDED TO CONTACT HIM THROUGH THE STATED EMAIL, (dr.molowa@gmail.com) and he send to me a herbal medicine and ask me to drink and bath with the herbal medicine for one 3 weeks but to my greatest surprises, i went for a medical test after two weeks and my status was negetive till today i cant keep sharing this testimony please brothers and sisters there is a cure to hiv/aids, contact this man for what ever you are going through, what ever sickness you are suffering from, like
    (1) CANCER,
    (2) DIABETES,
    (3) HIV&AIDS,
    (4) URINARY TRACT INFECTION,
    (5) CANCER,
    (6) IMPOTENCE,
    (7) BARENESS/INFERTILITY
    (8) DIARRHEA
    (9) ASTHMA
    (10)SIMPLEX HERPES AND GENITAL HERPES
    11) HE ALSO HAVE SPELL TO BRING BACK YOUR EX
    hiv/aids,perkinsons disease, ALS,CANCERS,HERPES. contact him with his email via (dr.molowa@gmail.com) or call him through the following contact on +2349035740352

    ReplyDelete
  5. My name is Sandra,My life is back!!! After 7 years of Broken marriage, my husband left me with two kids . I felt like my life was about to end i almost committed suicide, i was emotionally down for a very long time. Thanks to a spell caster called LORD odudu, which i met online. On one faithful day, as I was browsing through the internet,I came across allot of testimonies about this particular spell caster. Some people testified that he brought their Ex lover back,some testified that he restores womb,cure cancer,and other sickness, some testified that he can cast a spell to stop divorce and so on. i also come across one particular testimony,it was about a woman called Lydia,she testified about how he brought back her Ex lover in less than 2 days, and at the end of her testimony she dropped LORD odud E-mail address. After reading all these,I decided to give it a try. I contacted him VIA Email and explained my problem to him. In just 48hours, my husband came back to me. We solved our issues, and we are even happier than before LORD odudu, is really a gifted man and i will not stop publishing him because he is a wonderful man… If you have a problem and you are looking for a real and genuine spell caster to solve all your problems for you. Try oduduspiritualshrine@gmail.com anytime, he might be the answer to your prombles.

    1. GETTING YOUR EX BACK

    2. WINNING LOTTERIES.

    3. CHILD BEARING.

    4. BREAKING OF GENERATION COURSE.

    5. GETTING OF JOB.

    6. JOB PROMOTION.

    7. MONEY SPELL.

    8. SPIRITUAL PROTECTION.

    9. HERBAL CARE.

    10. BEAUTY SPELL.

    ReplyDelete
  6. My name is Sandra,My life is back!!! After 7 years of Broken marriage, my husband left me with two kids . I felt like my life was about to end i almost committed suicide, i was emotionally down for a very long time. Thanks to a spell caster called LORD odudu, which i met online. On one faithful day, as I was browsing through the internet,I came across allot of testimonies about this particular spell caster. Some people testified that he brought their Ex lover back,some testified that he restores womb,cure cancer,and other sickness, some testified that he can cast a spell to stop divorce and so on. i also come across one particular testimony,it was about a woman called Lydia,she testified about how he brought back her Ex lover in less than 2 days, and at the end of her testimony she dropped LORD odud E-mail address. After reading all these,I decided to give it a try. I contacted him VIA Email and explained my problem to him. In just 48hours, my husband came back to me. We solved our issues, and we are even happier than before LORD odudu, is really a gifted man and i will not stop publishing him because he is a wonderful man… If you have a problem and you are looking for a real and genuine spell caster to solve all your problems for you. Try oduduspiritualshrine@gmail.com anytime, he might be the answer to your prombles.

    1. GETTING YOUR EX BACK

    2. WINNING LOTTERIES.

    3. CHILD BEARING.

    4. BREAKING OF GENERATION COURSE.

    5. GETTING OF JOB.

    6. JOB PROMOTION.

    7. MONEY SPELL.

    8. SPIRITUAL PROTECTION.

    9. HERBAL CARE.

    10. BEAUTY SPELL.

    ReplyDelete
  7. My life is beautiful because of you Mein Helfer.Lord jesus into my life as a candlelight in the dark. You showed me the meaning of faith with your words. I know even when i cried all day thinking how to get well you weren’t sleeping you were dear for me.I contacted Dr Ogenlala herbal center lived in west Africa. A friend of mine here in Hamburg she’s from Africa too,She told me about Africa herbs but was nervous about it.I’m really scared when it come to African because i heard allot of fiend things about them due to my Christianity I pray to god for direction,I take the bold step and contact him on email then move to whatsapp he ask if I can come over for the treatment or want a delivery,I said i want to meet him I buy 2 ways ticket down to Africa to meet Dr Ogenlala,I went there and i was speechless Of people I saw there.Patent,Sick people.Dr Ogenlala is a god sent to the world,I told my Pastor about what am into,Pastor Bill Scheer We have a wonderfully Real Battle With Spirit And Flesh.worship that same night,He pray for me and ask me to lead,I spent 2 weeks and 2 days in Africa in Dr Ogenlala Herbal Home,After the treatment He ask me to meet his nurse for HIV test when i did it was negative,I quietly ask my friend to take me to other nearby hospital when i got there it’s was negative.I was overwhelm with the result,But happy inside me.We went to Dr Ogenlala,I thank him but I explain to him I don’t have enough to show my appreciation he understand my situation but promise him to testify the good work of his.I thank god for my dear friend,Emma I know she might be reading this right now,I want to say thank you.And a big thanks to Dr Ogenlala Herbal Center.He Gave me his calendar which I place on my wall in my house.Dr Ogenlala Can As Well Cure The Following Disease…Cancer,Hiv,Herpes, Hepatitis B,Liver Inflammatory,Diabetics,You can contact him on email drogenlalahivcure@gmail.com ,phone number.. +2349064426256 ..He’s nice Doc,Talk to him nicely.I’m sure he will listen to you as well...

    ReplyDelete

  8. My life is beautiful because of you Mein Helfer.Lord jesus into my life as a candlelight in the dark. You showed me the meaning of faith with your words. I know even when i cried all day thinking how to get well you weren’t sleeping you were dear for me.I contacted Dr Ogenlala herbal center lived in west Africa. A friend of mine here in Hamburg she’s from Africa too,She told me about Africa herbs but was nervous about it.I’m really scared when it come to African because i heard allot of fiend things about them due to my Christianity I pray to god for direction,I take the bold step and contact him on email then move to whatsapp he ask if I can come over for the treatment or want a delivery,I said i want to meet him I buy 2 ways ticket down to Africa to meet Dr Ogenlala,I went there and i was speechless Of people I saw there.Patent,Sick people.Dr Ogenlala is a god sent to the world,I told my Pastor about what am into,Pastor Bill Scheer We have a wonderfully Real Battle With Spirit And Flesh.worship that same night,He pray for me and ask me to lead,I
    spent 2 weeks and 2 days in Africa in Dr Ogenlala Herbal Home,After the treatment He ask me to meet his nurse for HIV test when i did it was negative,I quietly ask my friend to take me to other nearby hospital when i got there it’s was negative.I was overwhelm with the result,But happy inside me.We went to Dr Ogenlala,I thank him but I explain to him I don’t have enough to show my appreciation he understand my situation but promise him to testify the good work of his.I thank god for my dear friend,Emma I know she might be reading this right now,I want to say thank you.And a big thanks to Dr Ogenlala Herbal Center.He Gave me his calendar which I place on my wall in my house.Dr Ogenlala Can As Well Cure The Following Disease…Cancer,Hiv,Herpes, Hepatitis B,Liver Inflammatory,Diabetics,You can contact him on email drogenlalahivcure@gmail.com ,phone number.. +2349064426256 ..He’s nice Doc,Talk to him nicely.I’m sure he will listen to you as well..

    ReplyDelete
  9. "Dr Bello herbal cure is 100% Guarantee percent sure to cure your (HEPATITIS B AND ANY OTHER DISEASE) ,He is only person that i can boldly say he can cure any types of Disease.my wife was having HEPATITIS B for more than 5 year when i met Dr Bello online how and how he has cured so many people and how greatly he has helped many individuals online,so i contacted him and explained my wife situation to him and behold my wife was cure with his herbal medicine and now we are living happily, so to anyone issue on herpes challenges i advised that you contact him for help and he will send you the medication and you will be fine and OK : adeyemibello1990@gmail. com he can also cure any disease such as HIV/AIDS HEPATITIS B,DIABETICS,CANCER,HERPES E.T.C HE is the great herbalist man called Dr.Bello i must say a big thanks for curing my wife disease, i owe you in return. Thanks and be blessed sir.his Mobile number: 09035594773 or what’sapp him on 08107996445"

    ReplyDelete
  10. I never thought i would be HIV negative again after been diagnosed in 2015, i have tried everything possible in life from one doctor to another, one hospital to another, series of tests, different kinds of medication, i had already lost hope until i meet Great Dr. OSAGIE online testimonies, a specialist in herbal medication from Africa, i contacted him (drosagiesolutiontemple@gmail.com OR
    DROSAGIESOULTIONTEMPLE@YAHOO.COM) and he prepared HIV herbal medication for me which i took for 7days and now i am completely cured. i want to use this medium to express my gratitude to him for saving my life and curing me from HIV, for taking away all my pains and sorrows, I''m indeed grateful and i am so happy I''m now HIV negative. i will continue to tell the good news of your great works to everyone, if you have HIV or other disease contact him, Email: his email: (drosagiesolutiontemple@gmail.com OR
    DROSAGIESOULTIONTEMPLE@YAHOO.COM ) or His Whatsapp number: +2347030465649...thank you my great dr for curing me keep up your great work...

    ReplyDelete
  11. I want use this opportunity to tell the world what has really happened to me for past few months, I have been married for two years without a child i was so worried, I have visited several hospitals and I was told i can't not conceive because i was having fibroid, I have been treated and even undergoes cloistral operation but still couldn't conceive until One day i came across Lillian Testimony on a guest book she was sharing the same problem exactly what is happening to me how Dr,,Miracle has cure his Fibroid, immediately i contacted him and told him about my Problem and he gave me hope that i should not be worried at all that he has cure more people already having same problem and said he can cure me under 8 weeks i was amaze. I Believe in him because he was the only hope and i followed him up he prepared me some herbs and send it to me in my state. I started using the herbs with his prescriptions, as i was taking the herbs i started noticing some changes in my body, to cut everything short i missed my period and today i have a child baby girl, My husband is so much happy and my mum too God. Thank you Dr,,Miracle I can't just keep this to my self i decided to share and post it here on-line for everyone to see that the work Of God In My Life True His Son Dr,,Miracle God Bless Doctor And More Grace To His Work, Email Him (miraclespellhome@yahoo.com) Call Or Whatsapp Him +2348071398555 ,,

    ReplyDelete
  12. Real registered passports, drivers licenses,ID and fake more : www.buyrealfakedocuments.com
    We produce Real registered and Fake Novelty passports,drivers
licenses,ID cards,birth certificates,diplomas,Visas,SSN,Marriage
certificates,divorce papers,US green cards,,Insurance, Passport Visas, Entry and Exit Stamps, Death
Certificates, Residence Permits, Work Permits, Ultility Bills,
Invitation Letters, Jobs, CV, Counterfeit Bank Notes, Change all
identy documents, Clear criminal records,Social Security Number, Birth
Certificate, Driver's license, USA/UK Residence Permits, School
Diplomas and Certificates, Teacher's License, Utility Bills, Divorce
Certificates, Marriage Certificates, Property Tittles, Customs,
Counterfeit Money,birth certificates,diplomas,Visas,SSN,Marriage
certificates,divorce papers,US green cards,University
degrees,Stamps,Marijuana license, registered TOEFL, IELTS, ESOL,
CELTA/DELTA & other English Language Certificates,credit cards,SSD
chemical solution and activation powder used for cleaning coated black
money, and other documents.....

    All Inquiries:

    Email::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: realdocs24@gmail.com
    General support:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: info@buyrealfakedocuments.com
    Website:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: http://www.buyrealfakedocuments.com
    SKYPE ID: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::realdocs24

    ReplyDelete
  13. Its a miracle that I am alive today. I encounter HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS (HSV1/2) for good four (4) years, six (6) months and twelve (12) day with my calculations, before I meet the great Dr. Sambo. I am DEBORAH BALOGH from Fresno California, united state of America and I was affected with herpes virus. Herpes is a viral infection cause by the Herpes simplex virus, marked by painful, watery blister in the skin or mucous membrane or on the genitals. This was what I suffered for good four years. I have visited CVS Pharmacy in Fresno for treatment but no improvement. I meet Dr. Sambo online while I was searching for herpes cure I read a testimony about his work. I give a try that now becomes a testimony in my life. I contacted Dr. Sambo via his E-mail divinespellhome@gmail.com and he did not responds to me in time and I went back to the same testimony for his mobile number and I called him immediately +2348145810121 and he respond to my call. He welcome me as a daughter and I explain my four years situation to him and he said is done just as I have contacted him and I believed in him. Dr. Sambo sends me some herbal medication for herpes cure and he gave me instruction on what to do and I obeyed his instruction. Changes started after three days of applying the herbal medication. I went to the same CVS Pharmacy in Fresno for test and i was herpes negative. I do not know how to thanks Dr. Sambo for saving my life. To God be the Glory, I am living healthy with my family today.

    Indeed, Dr. Sambo is a great man

    and the only thing he requested from me is to share my Testimony for the world to see for a safe living from herpes viral disease and just as I did.

    E-mail divinespellhome@yahoo.com

    God bless Dr. Sambo for his good work...

    ReplyDelete
  14. As you all know that HIV/AIDs and Cancer are getting stronger and spreading day by day and that we are not responsible for the pains of our loved ones, but it’s our responsibility to help those who are infected with viruses. The only way for us to find peace in this world is to love one another and stand by each other. Am sharing this comment because I was once suffering from HIV for 4 years and Genital Herpes for some months until I got help from Dr. Osojo who helped me with a herbal cure for both Genital Herpes and my 4 years HIV virus. If you also need help, you can also reach him: { dr.osojoherbalcureofalldisease@gmail.com } or call him on +234 810 066 3964. You could also use this link, http://drosojoherbalcure.wixsite.com/ofalldisease .Having HIV/Aids or Herpes isn’t the end of your life, it’s actually not a death sentence for you, there is a cure and Dr. Osojo can help you with it as he did mine.

    ReplyDelete
  15. I'm here to share to the worldwide that Dr.Zuku is a Powerful Herbal Medicine man. that can cure your disease if you can only contact him and let him help you. I was cured from my Herpes Disease. after suffering since 9years ago. but when i contact him on the internet. he gave me a Natural cure that ended my suffering after using it for two weeks. i went to check myself on the hospital and i was tested negative. I can't more happier but to say thank you sir and i use this medium to say to everyone don't waste any time to contact this powerful herbal Dr,Zuku On any Kind of Disease he is Ready to help you. You can reach him through

    Email:drzukuspelltemple@gmail.com

    Dr.Zuku Cell Number:+16177296273

    contact Dr Zuku Blogs: https://drzukuspelltemple.blogspot.co.ke/

    Dr.Zuku Website: https://drzukuspelltemplewhereallkindsofproblemisbesolve.wordpress.com/contact/

    ReplyDelete
  16. MY name is kapil weafer, I feel very happy to share my great and wonderful testimony with everyone on this site..: I was married for 4 years to my husband and all of a sudden another woman came into the picture he started hating me and he was abusive. but i still loved him with all my heart and wanted him at all cost.... He filed for divorce and my whole life was turning apart and i didn't know what to do, he moved out of the house and abandoned me and the kids... my very close friend told me about trying spiritual means to get my husband back and introduced me to a spell caster so i decided to try it. although i didn't believe in all those things then when he did the special prayers and spell, after 2 days, my husband came back and was pleading that he had realized his mistakes I just couldn't believe it, anyway we are back together now and we are happy in case anyone needs help here is his email address; driraborspellcaster@gmail.com His spells is for a better life OR call his number +13019098775

    ReplyDelete
  17. Hello everybody I want to use this opportunity to share this Good-news to everybody here have been working for 8 years now without promotion and no salary increase , it really so frustrating when taxes keep going up and no increase on salaries ,I have tried everything i can to be promoted but no way, always punctual, humble , respectful, nice to customers still my boss never notice me for promotion no matter what I do never get recognized. I'm doing the job of a supervisor but still getting paid like an installer.I'm running jobs the whole thing on my shoulders. Still nothing. I'm fighting a losing battle because the boss pick favorites. i wanted to quit the job but a friend told me there is a real spell caster called Dr. IDELU who can help so i gave him a try and to my greatest surprise when my boss called me and give me a promotion letter in the company which I work for and also there was 80% increase in my salary i am now a happiest human on health i appreciate your Good work contact
    Dr. IDELU FOR YOUR PROMOTION SPELL
    AND INCREASE IN SALARY SPELL
    OR YOU WANT YOUR BUSINESS TO BOOST UP
    CONTACT DR IDELU TODAY VIA dridelusolutiontemple@gmail.com or dridelusolutiontemple@yahoo.com you can WhatsaPP him or call him on +2348167061171 .

    ReplyDelete
  18. Dr. Sam has really made me so much believe in him by getting me cured with his herbal treatment. i really appreciate you Dr.Sam for bringing back happiness to my life again. thanks you so much,friends join me to thank him for what he has actually done for me i pray to you all for a good life and good health, and most especially to you Dr. Sam THANKS.

    I have been suffering from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) disease for the past four years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year,I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few months ago i came on search on the internet if i could get any information concerning the cure of this disease, on my search i saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) by this Man Dr Sam and she drop the email address of this man and advise we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so i wrote to Dr. Sam telling him about my (HERPES Virus) well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me. I am now here to testify that i am not longer a herpes patient, I have experience a total transformation in my life,for all herpes patients get your herbal medicine to cure your sickness. And there has being rapid improvement in my health, I no longer feel pains and I wake up each morning feeling revived. So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all,you can contact him. (Supremecurehome@gmail.com) Wbesite: http://www.supremecurehome.blogspot.com
    CANCER
    EPILEPSY.
    GENPILENCIN.
    HIV AIDS.
    DIABETICS
    STROKE.
    EXPANDS OF PENIS BREAST
    H.P.V TYPE 1 TYPE 2 TYPE 3 AND TYPE 4. TYPE 5.
    HUMAN PAPAILOMA VIRUS.
    HERPES.
    SYPHILIS.
    HEPATITIS A B and C.

    Email: Supremecurehome@gmail.com WhatsApp number +2347087462033

    ReplyDelete
  19. HOW I GOT CURED OF HESPES DISEASE
    I'm here to testify about what DR. OSO did for me. I have been suffering from (HERPES) disease for the past 5 years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year,I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came across a testimony of one lady on the internet testifying about a Man called DR. OSO on how he cured her from herpes disease. And she also gave the email address of this man and advise anybody to contact him for help for any kind of sickness that he would be of help, so I emailed him telling him about my (HERPES) he told me not to worry that i was going to be cured!! Well i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me as DR. OSO assured me that i will be cured,after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if i have be finally healed behold it was TRUE, the test came out negative. So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can contact DR. OSO for help via email} drosohaberhome@gmail.com/ dr.osoherberhome1@outlook.com Or CALL/WHATAPPS him through his mobile} +2348162084839..///

    ReplyDelete
  20. My Name is Linda Mark from USA/TEXAS Dr.SUKU Herbal Medicine is a good remedy for Herpes Virus , I was a carrier of Herpes and I saw a testimony on how Dr.SUKU cure Herpes Virus, I decided to contact him, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for my health. After he finish he sent me the herbs which i took for 2 week before going for a check up and getting there i could not believe that i was confirm Herpes Negative after the test,Today i am so happy because i'm free from herpes disease with the help of Dr.SUKU Thank God now everything is fine, I'm cured by Dr.SUKU herbal medicine, I'm very thankful to God for making it possible you can reach him on his email i strongly recommend him to any one out here looking for a cure drsukuherbalhome@gmail.com or Text/Call cell number +1(325) 701-3934 Dr.Suku Web /Site http://DrSUKU.website2.me

    ReplyDelete